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Battery, Battery Materials

Li-Metal Anode for Next-gen Battery Technology Development Status & Market Outlook 

 

Facing the increasingly aggravating climate change in the 21st century, there has been a strong demand for the development of renewable and clean energy technology while the entire world has been actively taking comprehensive measures to achieve suitability by establishing various environmental regulations and taking related actions. The secondary battery industry is one of the representing industries in the eco-friendly energy field. With means of transportation changing from vehicles with internal combustion engine to electric vehicles,  there are active research and studies on different types of lithium-ion battery. 

 

Since the 1990s when lithium-ion battery was commercialized, battery has been effectively used as a power source for commercial electronic devices and electric vehicles for the past decades. However, the existing lithium-ion battery using graphite as anode has low theoretical capacity (~372 mAh/g) and volumetric capacity (~735 mAh/cm3) at anode, which limits the enhancement of energy density in lithium-ion battery. In order to meet the growing demand for lithium secondary battery, it is necessary to have a new battery technology which surpass the existing lithium-ion battery. 

 

Lithium metal has very high theoretical capacity (~3860 mAh/g) and the lowest electrochemical potential (-3.04 V vs. hydrogen electrode) as well as the lowest density (0.53g/cm3). Thanks to these characteristics, lithium-metal anode is regarded as the most potential material that can deliver high capacity per unit weight and unit volume as well as high power output. 

 

This report describes the technology trend of various types of anode material, particularly focusing on up-to-date technology trend for lithium-metal anode material. In addition, the report also illustrates the lithium technology and development status in different countries such as Korea, China, Japan and others. 

 

SNE Research hopes this report to help our clients find useful information about lithium-metal anode and lay a foundation for next-gen battery anode materials. 

 

Strong points of this report are as follows: 

1) Comprehensive Summary of Li-metal Manufacturing Technology and Related Issues

2) Understanding of Overall R&D Trend in Li-metal Anode and Anode-less 

3) Technology Trend and Strategies of Major Playors in Li-Metal Anode Field 


 

 


1. Introduction                                                                              8
    1.1 LIB Requirements                                                              9
    1.2 LIB Development Trend                                                    11

2. Anode Technology and Development Status                          13
    2.1 LIB Anode Material Overview                                            14
    2.2 LIB Anode Material Development Trend                           16
        2.2.1 Next-gen Development Direction (Li-metal)               19
        2.2.2 Next-gen Development Direction (anodeless)            22

3. Li metal Manufacturing Technology and Supply Status           29
    3.1 Lithium Production and Supply Status                               30
        3.1.1 Global Li reserves                                                       31
        3.1.2 Global Li production                                                    34
        3.1.3 Li resources : Mineral                                                  37
        3.1.4 Li resources : Ores                                                      38 
        3.1.5 Li resources : Brines                                                    40
        3.1.6 Li Material Supply Structure                                         42  
        3.1.7 Li Demand Outlook                                                      46

    3.2 Li metal Manufacturing Technology                                     47
        3.2.1 Li Material Technology                                                  47
        3.2.2 Li Thin-film Technology                                                 51

    3.3 Li metal Manufacturing Issue                                              63
        3.3.1 Limitations in Li Thin-film Making Process                   63
        3.3.2 High-cost structure                                                       64

4. Li metal anode R&D Trend and Major Issues                          66
    4.1 Li metal anode Development History                                 67
        4.1.1 Development History Overview                                   67
        4.1.2 Li metal battery(LMB) History                                      68
        4.1.3 Li metal battery(LMB) Initial Development                  69
        4.1.4 Li ion battery Development and Market Dominance   70
        4.1.5 Rise of Li metal battery(LMB)’s Necessity                   71

    4.2 Li metal anode issue                                                           72
         4.2.1 Li dendritic growth                                                       72
         4.2.2 SEI Layer issue                                                           77

   4.3 Li metal anode R&D Trend                                                    81
       4.3.1 Artificial SEI                                                                    83
       4.3.2 New structure design                                                      94
       4.3.3  Electrolyte modification                                                 102
       4.3.4 Anode-less design                                                          118

5. Li metal anode Development Status by Company                    123
    5.1 Overview                                                                             124
    5.2 Companies in Asia                                                              126
         Samsung SDI / LGES / SK on / CATL / EVE / Prologium
         Qingtao Energy / Welion / Hyundai Motor Group / POSCO 
         Neba Corportaion / Ulvac Inc / Santoku / Honjo metal                           
         Wuxi Sunenergy Lithium Industrial  / China Energy Lithium
         Ganfeng Lithium / Tianqi Lithium/ Montavista 
         Shenzen Inx Technology / BTR / Softbank Next-gen Battery Lab 
         National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)     
         NIMS-ALCA SPRING         

    5.3 Companies in Europe                                                                187
         Blue Solutions / Volkswagen / Mercedes-Benz 
         SIDRABE  / IMEC 

    5.4 Companies in North America                                                     199
        SES / QuantumScape  / Solid Power / Factorial Energy                                                
         Soelect /  TeraWatt / Hydro Quebec / Brightvolt  / Sion Power                 
         SEEO  / Cuberg  / Enpower Greentech / PolyPlus                                                                         
         Sepion Technologies Inc / Ion Storage Systems  / Sakuu    
         GM  / Ford  / Li Metal Corp / Ionic Materials / Albemarle       
         SQM  / Livent Corp  / Pure Lithium Corp   

     5.5 Summary of Major Companies                                                 255

6. Li metal anode Market Outlook                                                        259
    6.1 Li metal anode Market Outlook Overview                                  260
        6.1.1 Li Metal Anode Battery Type and Cost Structure                260         
        6.1.2 Li Metal Anode Adoption Roadmap                                    261
        6.1.3 Li Metal Anode Battery Commercialization Scenario         263

    6.2 Li metal anode Market Outlook                                                 264
        6.2.1 Li metal anode Demand Outlook                                       264
        6.2.2 Li metal anode Price Forecast                                           265
        6.2.3 Li metal anode Price Forecast Logic                                  266
        6.2.4 Li metal Battery (SLMB) Market Size Outlook                   269
        6.2.5 Li metal Battery (SLMB) Usage Ratio Outlook                  270
        6.2.6 Li metal Battery (SLMB) Usage Outlook by Application    271