<2022> Technology Status and Market Outlook for Lithium Secondary Battery Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) Cathode Material
2021 was the year when China's interest in lithium iron phosphate (LFP, LiFePO4) batteries exploded.
The proportion of electric vehicles (EV) equipped with LFP batteries, sold in China, has surpassed that of ternary batteries, including NCM (Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese) or NCA (Nickel-Cobalt-Aluminum) since last September.
Currently, most of the LFP batteries are being produced by Chinese companies, and Volkswagen, Ford, and others, as well as Tesla, are showing interest in LFP batteries. Although even Apple, making Apple Cars, has also negotiated with China's CATL and BYD for the LFP battery supply but the negotiations failed, it is said that they are still reviewing LFP batteries.
As capacity of lithium secondary batteries has become large, the prices and safety enhancement of lithium secondary batteries are emerging as important topics. In this trend, LFP batteries, which was developed a long time ago, are emerging as a new topic, the reason is that it can be manufactured at a relatively low cost since cobalt is not utilized, that it has excellent life and safety because structural collapse does not occur even at high temperatures and in the overcharged state, and also that since most of the core patents on lithium iron phosphate will expire in 2022, it may become enabled to sell them without payment of patent fees or a risk of patent infringement. In order to understand the characteristics and merits & demerits of LFP secondary batteries, it is necessary to acquire systematic knowledge and information on lithium secondary batteries, as well as knowledge about the advantages and limitations of LFP cathode materials, and based on this, it seems possible to understand the future development direction of LFP secondary batteries.
Currently, LFP batteries can achieve a cruising distance of about 400km; in the case of the Tesla’s 2021 Model 3, where the LFP cathode material is actually applied, the driving distance can achieve 407km. In addition, it is superior even in prices by using iron – which is low in cost; due to the recent surge in the prices of raw materials for ternary products, such as cobalt, nickel, etc., such a price advantage is getting bigger. Furthermore, in terms of safety, compared to the layered ternary system, the olivine-structured LFP materials have advantages, including no fires or explosive reactions even at a high temperature of 300℃ and under 260% overcharging, and others, so there is an advantage that battery makers or finished car makers don’t need to reserve appropriations in preparation for safety accidents.
Even though there still remain many challenges to be solved, if performance for bulk LFP, effective complexation with graphene, and performance of LiMnPO4, etc. are realized, it is thought that further progress will be enabled in olivine-structured LFP.
In this report, we are going to examine the types and characteristics of cathode materials for lithium secondary batteries, especially investigate in detail the characteristics of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cathode materials, which are emerging as a hot topic in recent years, and then, discuss the development status and manufacturing process technology minutely.
Here, we have organized the outlook for the LFP cathode material market and the information on major companies, and also discussed the status of LFP-applying automakers and battery makers.
The strong points of this report are as follows:
① Detailed description on types and characteristics of LFP and lithium secondary battery cathode materials
② Comparative analysis on technological characteristics of LFP materials and ternary materials
③ Summary of manufacturing process and latest technology development trends for LFP
④ Outlook for LFP production capacity and usage by major company
⑤ Helpful for companies or individuals who want to enter the LFP material market or conduct new studies
<2022 Edition> Technology Status and Market Outlook for Lithium Secondary Battery Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) Cathode Material
1. Outline of Lithium Secondary Battery
1-1. History of Lithium Secondary Battery
1-2. Types and Characteristics of Lithium Secondary Battery
1-3. Principle of Lithium Secondary Battery
1-4. Components of Lithium Secondary Battery
1-5. Application of Lithium Secondary Battery
2. Types and Characteristics of Lithium Secondary Battery Cathode Materials
2-1. Crystal Structure and Characteristics of Lithium Secondary Battery Cathode Materials
2-2. Structure and Electrochemical Characteristics of Oxide-Based Cathode Materials
2-2-1. Layered Oxide
2-2-2. Li- and Mn-Rich Oxide
2-2-3. Disordered Rock-Salt Oxide
2-2-4. Spinel Oxide
2-3. Structure and Electrochemical Characteristics of Polyanion-Based Cathode Materials
2-3-1. Olivine-Type Polyanion Oxide
2-3-2. Other Polyanion-Based Cathode Active Materials
3. Status of Technology Development for LFP Cathode Materials
3-1. Development Direction of LFP Cathode Materials
3-2. Development History of LFP Cathode Materials
3-3. Basic Characteristics of LFP Cathode Materials
3-3-1. Crystal Structure
3-3-2. Lithium Movement and Phase Change Mechanism during Charging and Discharging
3-3-3. Electrical Conductivity
3-3-4. Faults in the Structure
3-3-5. Energy Density
3-3-6. Temperature Dependence
3-3-7. Life Characteristics
3-4. Manufacturing Process of LFP Cathode Materials
3-4-1. Synthetic Method
3-4-2. Synthetic Raw Materials and Heat Treatment
3-5. Technology Development Trend of LFP Cathode Materials
3-5-1. Particle Shape Control
3-5-2. Complexation of Carbon-Based
3-5-4. Energy density Increase through Alloying
3-5-5. Technology Development Trends of Other Olivine-Based Cathode Materials
3-6. Outlook for Future R&D Directions on LFP Cathode Materials
4. Status of LFP Cathode Material Markets and Companies
4-1. Status of LFP-Applied Secondary Battery Market
4-2. Status of Major Manufacturers of LFP Cathode Materials
4-2-2. Guoxuan (Gotion)
4-2-4. Hunan Yuneng
4-2-5. Hubei Wanrun
4-2-7. Chongqing Terui
4-2-10. Johnson Matthey
4-2-11. Tianjin STL
(Shenghua, Annada, CNNC, Yunxiang, Tinci, BASF, Dupont, Aleees, Tatung, Formosa, CAEC)
4-3. Status of Automakers Applying LFP
4-4. Status of Battery Makers Applying LFP